Above, eight double-page openings from one of many handmade books James Castle conceived and constructed out of household scraps and other found materials. A cigarette package transformed itself into the book's cover. Castle, who could not read, represented blocks of text on inside pages with wavy lines.
Three images below represent a tall narrow book with "GARBARDINE" on its cover. Inside, the two-panel pages mimic images appropriated from print advertising.